Basics of Research Methods, Design, and Analysis

The basics of research methods, design, and analysis involve five specific principles.

  1. There must be a minimization of the risk of harm to the individuals involved in the process.
  2. Every participant must receive informed consent regarding the research that investigators are managing.
  3. Privacy protections must exist to help protect the confidentiality and anonymity of each participant in the research project.
  4. Researchers must avoid using deceptive practices.
  5. There must be an option available for participants to withdraw.

Why Must These Basics Be Followed?

The goal with these principles of basic research methods is to prevent harm from happening to participants. 

Several different types of harm can happen, intentionally or unintentionally. It may involve physical distress, psychological discomfort, social disadvantages, and even financial problems. That’s why it is essential to obtain informed consent about the project as part of the initial design.


Without a certain level of confidence that people will be safe during the research process, the data and analysis portion of the research will not have enough authenticity.

Deceptive practices can also eliminate the integrity of the data collected. If people get told that they are taking a placebo when they receive the actual treatment, then authentic results are no longer possible. The reverse is also true.

Even though participants can decide for themselves if they believe that they’re in a control or treatment group, researchers must provide as much honesty as possible. That’s why most studies tell subjects that the item they take might be a placebo, or it could be the item being studied. 

How Feasible Is It to Perform These Research Methods?

Feasibility doesn’t involve the cost of doing research. It is the possibility of understanding what is happening in the clinical setting while avoiding data distribution. Instead of having direct contact with the subjects in question, it may involve the use of public or online settings where barriers protect identities in both directions.

It may be impossible to know for sure when people are coming or going, but the basics of research methods must include the right to withdraw. If someone doesn’t feel comfortable with what is happening to them, then there is an ethical requirement to get out at any stage of the process.

That option even applies to the researchers and investigators into important topics, such as the impact of the flu or similar subjects..

These basics create ethical outcomes that promote more knowledge in whatever field being studied. It is how a solid foundation gets built. 

How to Survive Moving to New York City

Moving to New York City is a dream that many young people have when growing up. Expectations don’t always meet up with the reality of the situation when achieving this goal. That’s why knowing how to survive in the first days of coming to NYC can make the transition easier to complete. 

You will find every type of person in New York City. That’s one of the reasons why the energy levels always feel high here. It is a place where you can blend in if you prefer. You’ll also discover that this community wants you to become unapologetically independent.

What to Know When Moving to NYC

The logistics of moving to New York City are about the same as they are anywhere else you might live. Your home might be smaller and more expensive, but life has a way of getting you into a routine.

When you find yourself in NYC, you’ll discover these truths are waiting.

Every Person Has a Story to Tell

The diversity of people and stories are fantastic in the city. Everyone you meet has something to share and can make your life better in some way. Almost everyone comes to NYC for a specific reason, and that is connects you to others if you’re willing to have a conversation.

The Subway Isn’t As Bad as the Stories Say

Do you want to chew the gum that’s stuck to the railing as you descend to the subway? Of course not. What you’ll discover is that the city never sleeps. If you’re willing to offer a smile, most people will give one back in return. Using your common sense will help you to discover many new and safe experiences in NYC.

You Can Make It Anywhere if You Make It Here

New York City is the perfect place to put your priorities to the test. There is no other place in the United States where you can find evidence that your ideas and perspectives have relevance. The city can be unforgiving, and there will be days when you feel like giving up. If you persist, then you can find some success.

Happy Hour Always Provides Some Relief

Drinking in NYC is cheap if you know where to look. Almost every bar offers some kind of special nightly. The street tacos and other foods from local vendors can even make it so that you don’t need to cook in your small apartment.

New York City will test your limits. It will separate the doers from the dreamers. If you can find a job, a friend, and a place to live, then there’s nothing that can hold you back. 

How Former Coal Towns are Turning to Tourism for Reinvention

You can find the same cool breeze blowing through the downtown streets of Cumberland today as families did a generation ago. This old mountain mining town offers echoes of the local river and an economy that isn’t thriving like it did when coal was shipping out daily before the local industry’s collapse.

Taking a walk through the downtown corridor makes it feel like you’re in a ghost town. The boarded-up windows, empty storefronts, and vacant lots have plenty of stories to tell. You’ll find the occasional craft store selling souvenirs and a diner serving up classics, but times are changing.

The decline of coal in Kentucky means it is time for towns like Cumberland to reinvent themselves. Many of them are turning to tourism to make ends meet.

Kentucky Generates $15 Billion in Tourism Annually

Kentucky might generate billions of dollars in economic activity from tourism, but only a fraction of that figure comes through the 18 southeastern countries where you’ll find Cumberland.

The region that’s affectionately called “Daniel Boone Country” brings in $350 million each year. That figure is up 4% from 2016, but it is a far cry from what these mountain towns earned during the coal years.

Harlan County, which is where you can visit Cumberland, reported $26.5 million in tourism activities in 2017.

Reinvention is possible, but it is a process that will take time to complete. Cumberland was a partial recipient of $2.55 million in federal aid from the Abandoned Mine Lands Pilot Grant to redevelop the economy. Local officials used those funds to upgrade a mine tour in nearby Lynch.

The funds are also going to help renovate an administrative building and the old bathhouse in the area. These structures will then let a local religious ministry expand its mushroom-growing business to support the local economy.

Why Do People Choose Rural Destinations?

The one thing lacking from many vacations or day trip adventures is authenticity. You’ll find plenty of that when you go off of the beaten path to visit a town like Cumberland. It is an opportunity to provide an Americana experience that large cities can’t offer.

Supplementing the grant money with efforts to build hiking and cycling trails is only the beginning of Cumberland’s efforts. Coal companies still own a lot of the property in the area, and they aren’t keen to offer easements or grants in case the economy skews back toward this fossil fuel.

That isn’t stopping people from moving forward. For Kentucky’s mountain towns, tourism offers a chance to honor their history while looking to the future. 

Why Is the Flu Common in Winter Months?

About 20,000 people in the United States die from the influenza virus each year. Most of the victims of this illness are elderly or chronically ill individuals, but it can also take the lives of otherwise healthy people.

Kyle Baughman was an aspiring personal trainer living in Pennsylvania. He came home for Christmas, saying that he didn’t feel very well. He ended up dying a few days later from influenza-related organ failure.

The viruses that cause influenza appear at their peak for about 2-3 weeks each winter. Exposure risks last for about six weeks, although you can get sick throughout the year in some areas.

Why the flu disappears as quickly as it arrives is not known. We do know that the virus spreads by droplet infection from people with a high viral load in their throat and nasal secretions. Sneezing or coughing around someone can quickly infect anyone close.

If you are dealing with symptoms related to the flu, then you may want to consider a supplement that seeks to support a healthy immune system and respiratory system. Enzymedica, Irwin Naturals, and Pure Encapsulations are brands that use herbs and essential nutrients to help provide the additional support that it needs.

Why Do Children Get the Flu First?

During the regular flu season, children tend to experience the first symptoms of this virus. Then they bring it home so that their parents get exposed to it. As the adults go about their day, they share their infected droplets with others with their sneezing and coughing.

Any situation where large groups of people come together places someone at a higher risk of exposure. That’s why schools, nursing homes, and large employers often see the most flu activity during the winter.

Equatorial countries experience something similar. Exposures can happen all year, but the peak rates occur during the rainy season. 

What Are the Symptoms of Influenza?

Many of the symptoms of influenza are similar to what people experience with a bad cold. Since there tends to be a conflation of unwanted outcomes, many people will say that they have the flu when they do not.


The trademark symptom of the flu is a sudden, often severe fever that spikes at 104° in children. A cough, sore throat, runny nose, and body aches are all part of the experience. Headaches and fatigue happen frequently, with children often experiencing vomiting or diarrhea.


Not everyone with the flu will have a fever. The other symptoms are present, and they come on suddenly. A cold’s unwanted experiences set in gradually.

Most people will recover from a bout with influenza in two weeks or less. Anyone who is at a high risk from this virus should consider receiving the yearly flu shot.

Why Millennials Are Leaving Religion Without Looking Back

Millennials take a lot of blame for destroying everything about society. They reshape industries, change institutions, and seem to do it all with an expectation of having everyone hand them what they need on a silver platter. 

When we set perceptions aside, the conveniences that millennials enjoy have created new and exciting trends that benefit everyone. From ridesharing to programs like Uber Eats, every generation agrees in the majority that the benefits outweigh the potential disadvantages of these changes.

The one place of resistance that refuses to change is religion. 40% of Millennials say that they’re unaffiliated spiritually, and the people between the ages of 23 to 38 are just as likely to say that they have no religion in the U.S., as they are to identify as being a Christian.

Millennials Never Had Strong Ties to Religion

Even though Millennials have mortgages, spouses, and children, they’re not going back to church. One reason for this trend is the fact that their families never had secure connections to religion in the first place.

Young adults are more likely to marry someone non-religious than in the older generations, so the added life experiences help to reinforce secularism.

Then there are the changing views that millennials have with the relationship between morality and religion. Evangelicals would stress that abortion is murder, so supporting anyone or any organization that disagrees goes against the tenets of faith.

Millennials would say that religions who don’t support food banks, foster children, and other community organizations while condemning their perspectives are not worth any attention.

The Parents of Millennials Are Partly Responsible

17% of Millennials say that they were not raised in a specific religion when growing up. Less than one-third said that they attended weekly services regularly when they were young. That’s compared to 5% and 49% of Baby Boomers, respectively.

How parents see religion has a direct impact on how children shape their spiritual beliefs.

When both parents share the same religion, then 84% of the adults that come from these households identify with that definition of spirituality. That attitude remains consistent for those who grew up in homes without religious influences.

57% of Millennials say that religious people are less tolerant of others. Even though faith has direct associations with positive social outcomes, this generation cannot stand hypocrisy.

What Is Happening With the UAW Corruption Probe?

The scope of the UAW corruption probe continues to widen as the union works to agree on new labor contracts in Detroit.

Federal prosecutors charged their 12th person in the multiyear investigation with conspiracy to embezzle union funds on October 31, 2019. A conspiracy charge of defrauding the United States was added, with both felonies carrying up to five years in prison.

This action took place after federal investigators went to UAW president Gary Jones’ home in August to remove materials.

All of the alleged activities took place between 2010 and September 2019, with the focus on current and retired officials. Senior officials allegedly bought lavish dinners, had private villas, and purchased golfing merchandise to the tune of hundreds of thousands of dollars with the embezzled money.

They even allegedly spent over $60,000 on cigars and paraphernalia. 

What Is Going to Happen to Gary Jones? 

The board of directors for the United Auto Workers union moved in November to begin the removal process of Gary Jones from the presidency. After initially fighting the effort, Jones announced on November 30 that he was quitting his affiliation with the union of which he was a member since 1975.

He was facing internal Article 30 charges that would have removed his membership and position of office. Jones chose to resign instead of being forcibly removed. 

The step was an unprecedented action in the history of the UAW. Observers also believe that this action is a signal indicating the investigation into the corruption scheme is going to be entering a new phase.

By taking the step to resign, Jones gains the opportunity to avoid the embarrassment of a union trial.

Jones Has Not Yet Been Charged With Any Crimes

Jones initially requested a leave of absence from his duties on November 2, which the union granted. This process allowed for negotiations with General Motors, Fiat-Chrysler, and Ford to continue for their 150,000 auto workers and the 400,000 national membership.

Avoiding the trial is likely a step to prevent any union sanctions that might take place, like the denial of a pension. Jones began his career in the industry by working at the Ford plant in Broken Arrow, OK. As a certified accountant, he served as the top non-elected financial person for almost a decade before becoming the president.

Disengaging from the union as quickly as possible might help him to avoid issues of restitution if he took money from the treasury, but it will not stop the federal investigation.

The same cannot be said of the other individuals that are under federal investigations. Former UAW VP Joe Ashton, who was responsible for running the GM division at the union, entered a guilty plea on December 4 in Detroit as part of a deal with prosecutors. The charges include conspiracy to commit wire fraud and money laundering. 

The corruption probe into the union’s leadership continues, with more charges expected to be brought against individuals in the near future. 

Make sure to keep up with all of the latest news regarding the UAW. If it’s late at night or early morning and it is difficult to focus on a story, consider supplements from Banyan Botanicals, Alaffia, and Herb Pharm to provide the support your body needs.

When Did the Pope Visit White House Officials Last?

Papal visits to the United States are surprisingly frequent. American officials will also visit the Vatican occasionally as part of their state duties.

Although Pope Francis visited with the Obama Administration at the White House in 2015, the last interaction happened when Donald Trump brought several officials on the administration’s first foreign trip in 2017.

What was notable about this experience is that Sean Spicer, who was the White House press secretary at the time, was excluded from the meeting with Pope Francis and Donald Trump. It was a last-minute change that took him off of the shortlist of people selected for the private audience.

History of Papal Travel

Voluntary travel outside of Rome was almost non-existent for the first 500 years of the church. When Pope John Paul II took on pastoral trips, he was more active in that area than all of his predecessors combined.

Some popes didn’t reside in Rome, especially during the 13th century and the Avignon Papacy of the 14th century. A handful visited Constantinople in the early years of the church, but it wouldn’t be until Pope Stephen II crossed the Alps in 752 A.D., that Europeans began to see the influence of the church.

Pope Francis and Pope Paul VI both traveled around the world extensively, as did Pope Benedict XVI – although health issues kept the latter to a lesser schedule.

Pope Paul VI was the first to leave Italy since 1809, and he was also the first to travel by airplane. That allowed the papacy to visit Africa, Oceania, Asia, and the Western Hemisphere all during his time in office.

Pope John Paul II traveled the equivalent of 31 times around the planet in his journey, covering over 721,000 miles. His willingness to interact with others made him one of the most popular popes in history.

Why Do U.S. Presidents Meet with the Pope?

A total of 29 different meetings between the Pope and the sitting U.S. President have taken place over history. This total does not count the number of telephone conversations that take place between these two individuals. 

The first time a sitting president met with the pope was in 1919 when Benedict XV met with Woodrow Wilson at the end of World War I.

Ulysses S. Grant was the first president to have such a meeting in 1878, but his visit with Pope Leo XIII happened after leaving the office.

Most of the meetings take place with an informal atmosphere. The conversation usually involves trying to create more peace in the world while encouraging specific structures or attitudes that reflect spiritual teachings.

When Pope Francis met with Trump in 2017, his gift to the president was a copy of the 2015 encyclical on climate change. The two then spoke about health care, immigrant assistance, and educational opportunities.

There will come a time when the pope meets with the current president once again. Until that day comes, the goal is to continue promoting peace in the world by choosing to love our neighbors as ourselves. 

When Did the Pope Visit White House Officials Last?

Papal visits to the United States are surprisingly frequent. American officials will also visit the Vatican occasionally as part of their state duties.

Although Pope Francis visited with the Obama Administration at the White House in 2015, the last interaction happened when Donald Trump brought several officials on the administration’s first foreign trip in 2017.

What was notable about this experience is that Sean Spicer, who was the White House press secretary at the time, was excluded from the meeting with Pope Francis and Donald Trump. It was a last-minute change that took him off of the shortlist of people selected for the private audience.

History of Papal Travel

Voluntary travel outside of Rome was almost non-existent for the first 500 years of the church. When Pope John Paul II took on pastoral trips, he was more active in that area than all of his predecessors combined.

Some popes didn’t reside in Rome, especially during the 13th century and the Avignon Papacy of the 14th century. A handful visited Constantinople in the early years of the church, but it wouldn’t be until Pope Stephen II crossed the Alps in 752 A.D., that Europeans began to see the influence of the church.

Pope Francis and Pope Paul VI both traveled around the world extensively, as did Pope Benedict XVI – although health issues kept the latter to a lesser schedule.

Pope Paul VI was the first to leave Italy since 1809, and he was also the first to travel by airplane. That allowed the papacy to visit Africa, Oceania, Asia, and the Western Hemisphere all during his time in office.

Pope John Paul II traveled the equivalent of 31 times around the planet in his journey, covering over 721,000 miles. His willingness to interact with others made him one of the most popular popes in history.

Why Do U.S. Presidents Meet with the Pope?

A total of 29 different meetings between the Pope and the sitting U.S. President have taken place over history. This total does not count the number of telephone conversations that take place between these two individuals. 


The first time a sitting president met with the pope was in 1919 when Benedict XV met with Woodrow Wilson at the end of World War I.

Ulysses S. Grant was the first president to have such a meeting in 1878, but his visit with Pope Leo XIII happened after leaving the office.

Most of the meetings take place with an informal atmosphere. The conversation usually involves trying to create more peace in the world while encouraging specific structures or attitudes that reflect spiritual teachings.

When Pope Francis met with Trump in 2017, his gift to the president was a copy of the 2015 encyclical on climate change. The two then spoke about health care, immigrant assistance, and educational opportunities.

There will come a time when the pope meets with the current president once again. Until that day comes, the goal is to continue promoting peace in the world by choosing to love our neighbors as ourselves.

How Urban and Rural Voters Differ and Fuel Political Divisions

The election of Donald Trump helped to define more of the political divide that exists between urban and rural voters in the United States.

Since 1998, the number of registered voters in rural American counties has swung from 44% Republican to 54%. At the same time, Democratic voter registrations fell from 45% to 38%. The only stability exists in suburban counties, which are still swing areas for both political parties.

Although swings in political affiliation are somewhat frequent in the United States, what is fueling the divide between urban and rural voters are their views on specific social issues.

On Immigration

There is a 22 percentage point divide between rural (57%) and urban (35%) voters who say that growing numbers of immigrants threaten traditional American customs and values.

On Race

There is a 22 percentage point gap between urban (69%) and rural (47%) voters who say that white people benefit from advantages that African-Americans do not receive.

On Government

There is a 21 percentage point gap between urban (70%) and rural (49%) voters who say the government should be doing more to solve the problems the U.S. faces.

On Same-Gender Marriage

There is a 17 percentage point gap between rural (52%) and urban (35%) voters who say that it is a “very” or “somewhat” bad thing for a society to practice.

On Abortion

There is a 16 percentage point gap between rural (52%) and urban (36%) voters who say that abortion should be illegal in all or most cases.

[Statistics Reference]

What Is Notable About These Figures?

Concerning the issues that Americans feel are significant to society, most people in both parties find there is no room for compromise.

When rural voters say that the presence of immigrants threatens traditional American customs, there are very few people from the Republican camp who think like Democrats. When urban voters say that the presence of immigrants strengthens American society, you don’t get many Republicans to agree with that observation.

That’s why this divide has become a political fault line. There is no longer any room for compromise. One side sees themselves as being right, while their opponent is always wrong.

What fuels this divide? Economics.

About 70% of rural voters say that their values differ from those in big cities, with approximately 40% listing their views as “very different.” Only 20% of urban voters say that their values are “very different” from their rural counterparts.

This divide is about money. Does the federal government show preferential treatment to specific demographics?

People in rural areas are more likely to feel that immigrants are taking jobs away from them. They think that spiritual values are on the decline, and those in the big cities with their “Ivory towers” and “elitism” are to blame.

There is also a social identity to consider. Rural voters see themselves as people who look out for each other. Families that live in cities are not as compassionate, at least from the personal perspective, toward their neighbors in urban environments.

President Trump isn’t to blame for this division, although his comments certainly provoke debate between the two groups. This separation between urban and rural voters has been active in the U.S. for over 20 years. Until both sides feel like their concerns are being heard, it is going to continue. 

What Religion and Politics Quotes Reveal About America

Franklin Graham posted on Facebook December 5, 2019, this comment: “Seeing the murder of babies celebrated should send shivers up our spines. How can you trust someone who is okay with this?”

Joshua Feuerstein commented in 2017 about a dress code at school that doesn’t allow the U.S. flag. “Notice they single out OUR flag… but don’t prohibit others!” he wrote. “If you find our flag offensive… MOVE! Canada is full of snowflakes… you will FIT RIGHT IN!”

President Donald Trump once said, “The beauty of me is that I’m very rich.” He is also quoted as saying, “I will be the greatest jobs president God ever created.”

What do today’s religion and politics quotes reveal about America? That spirituality is becoming defined by a person’s governmental stances more than their actual faith.

What Does the Bible Say About Politics?

Since a significant percentage of voters identify themselves as Christians spiritually, the Bible offers some words of advice.

1 Peter 2 tells Christians to “Submit yourselves for the Lord’s sake to every human authority: whether to the emperor, as the supreme authority, or to governors, who are sent by Him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right.”

Romans 13 says, “Everyone must submit to governing authorities. For all authority comes from God, and those in positions of authority have been placed there by God.”

The Christian perspective is more than having a responsibility to obey the laws. There is a call to be a good citizen.

1 Peter 2 also says, “Show proper respect to everyone, love the family of believers, fear God, honor the emperor.”

It is that final component that’s missing in many political conversations from a religious standpoint from an outside perspective.

How Do We Bring Civility Back to Religion and Politics?

The Bible says to put away “all malice, deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and slander.” That seems like a reasonably straightforward instruction from a Christian standpoint.

Why does the Christian Right support Donald Trump with such passion when there are so many anti-faith comments that come from the president?

It is because there is a desire to have power over society. That perspective is exemplified by an exchange Trump had with a group of religious leaders in 2016.

“Are you allowed to use the word ‘Christmas’?” Trump asked. “Is there a restriction on the word ‘Christmas?’”

And one of the attendees, a group of pastors and religious leaders, said, “As long as you don’t refer to the baby Jesus as a ‘he.’ His preferred gender pronoun that day, that’s what you have to use.”

Presidents don’t need to be moral to be effective. It would be unfair to say that Trump changed after meeting with religious advisors, but the evangelicals who have had access to him have certainly shifted their perspectives.

Jerry Falwell, Jr. suggested that it may be immoral not to support Trump. Dr. James Dobson, who founded Focus on the Family, told people that as a “baby Christian,” the president needs the benefit of the doubt.

Franklin Graham insinuates that Stormy Daniels, the purpose of the impeachment proceedings, and more are all just “fake news.”

If Donald Trump is the standard-bearer of American Christianity, then how far has society gone from the days when Wheaton College was a stop for the Underground Railroad? That is a question that every person of faith must ask themselves.